Bikram Sambat is the Nepali Calendar used in Nepal. Bikram Sambat is solar calendar. It is about 57 years ahead than Gregorian Calendar (AD). Different from other calendar Nepali Calendar starts from in the month of Baisakh end in the month of Chaitra. Bikram Sambat is also called Patro. Tithis and Mithis are in the patro as well.
The Western calendar is also a solar calendar. A year in calendar is the time required for the earth to complete one orbit around the sun. The earth takes about 365 days 5 hours 48 minutes and 46 seconds to complete its one orbit round the earth. In short that period is counted as a full year.
It is based on both the sun and the moon; it uses a solar year but divides it into 12 lunar months. A lunar month is precisely 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes and 3 seconds long. Twelve such months constitute a lunar year of 354 days 8 hours 48 minutes and 36 seconds. To help the lunar months coincide with the solar year, the practice of inserting an intercalary (extra) month arose. Hence an extra month, called the Purushottam month (Adhik Mas), is inserted every 3 years.
Lunar days in eastern calendar are called “Tithis”. They are also calculated using the difference of the longitudinal angle between the position of the sun and moon. Because of this, tithis may vary in length. Consequently, the tithi may or may not have changed by the time the day has changed at sunrise. And that is why we find at certain times a tithi being omitted, and at certain times, two consecutive days sharing the same tithi.
Most of the festivals fall on lunar calendar and we use Bikaram Sambat which is solar calendar. That is the reason most of the festivals in Nepal do not fall under the same day in Bikram Sambat calendar all the years.
Nepali Months also Known as
Corresponding English Months
|1||Baishak||Baisak||April and May|
|2||Jestha||Jeth||May and June|
|3||Ashad||Asar||June and July|
|4||Shrawan||Sawan||July and August|
|5||Bhadra||Bhadau||August and September|
|6||Ashwin||Ashoj||September and October|
|7||Kartik||Kattik||October and November|
|8||Marga||Mansir||November and December|
|9||Poush||Push||December aand January|
|10||Magh||Magh||January and Febraury|
|11||Falgun||Fagun||February and March|
|12||Chaitra||Chait||March and April|